Saturday 4 May 2024

Python Coding challenge - Day 196 | What is the output of the following Python Code?


Code:

class Doubler(int):

    def __mul__(self, other):

        return super().__mul__(other + 3)  

d = Doubler(3)

result = d * 5

print(result)

Solution and Explanation:

This code defines a class named Doubler which inherits from the int class. Here's a detailed breakdown of the code:

class Doubler(int):: This line defines a new class named Doubler that inherits from the int class. This means that Doubler inherits all the properties and methods of the int class.
def __mul__(self, other):: This defines a special method __mul__() which overrides the multiplication behavior of instances of the Doubler class. This method is called when the * operator is used with instances of the Doubler class.
return super().__mul__(other + 3): Inside the __mul__() method, it first adds 3 to the other operand and then calls the __mul__() method of the superclass (in this case, the int class) using super(). It passes the modified other operand to the superclass method. Essentially, it performs multiplication of the Doubler instance with the modified value of other.
d = Doubler(3): This line creates an instance of the Doubler class with the value 3. The Doubler class inherits from int, so it can be initialized with an integer value.
result = d * 5: This line uses the * operator with the Doubler instance d and the integer 5. Since the Doubler class has overridden the __mul__() method, the overridden behavior is invoked. In this case, it adds 3 to the other operand (which is 5) and then performs multiplication.
print(result): Finally, this line prints the value of result.
Now, let's follow through the multiplication:

other is 5.
3 is added to other, making it 8.
The __mul__() method of the int class (the superclass) is called with 8 as the argument.
The superclass's __mul__() method multiplies the Doubler instance (d) by 8.
The result of this multiplication is assigned to result.
Finally, result is printed.
So, when you run this code, it should output 24, which is the result of multiplying 3 by (5 + 3).


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