Sunday 26 March 2023

Top 5 examples of Python decorators:

 @staticmethod: This decorator is used to define a static method in a class. A static method is a method that can be called on the class itself rather than on an instance of the class. Here's an example:

class MyClass:

    @staticmethod

    def my_static_method():

        print("This is a static method")

@classmethod: This decorator is used to define a class method in a class. A class method is a method that takes the class itself as its first argument rather than an instance of the class. Here's an example:

class MyClass:

    class_var = "Hello"

    

    @classmethod

    def my_class_method(cls):

        print(cls.class_var)

@property: This decorator is used to define a method as a property of a class. Properties allow you to access and set the value of an attribute of an instance of the class without explicitly calling a getter or setter method. Here's an example:

class MyClass:

    def __init__(self):

        self._x = 0

        

    @property

    def x(self):

        return self._x

    

    @x.setter

    def x(self, value):

        if value < 0:

            raise ValueError("Value must be non-negative")

        self._x = value

@log_calls: This decorator can be used to log all calls to a function. Here's an example:

def log_calls(func):

    def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):

        print(f"Calling {func.__name__} with args: {args}, kwargs: {kwargs}")

        result = func(*args, **kwargs)

        print(f"Finished {func.__name__}")

        return result

    return wrapper


@log_calls

def my_function(x, y):

    return x + y

@cache: This decorator can be used to cache the results of a function so that the function doesn't need to be called again with the same arguments. Here's an example:

def cache(func):

    results = {}

    def wrapper(*args):

        if args in results:

            return results[args]

        result = func(*args)

        results[args] = result

        return result

    return wrapper


@cache

def fibonacci(n):

    if n < 2:

        return n

    return fibonacci(n-1) + fibonacci(n-2)


5 awesome hidden features in Python

 Walrus operator (:=): This operator allows you to assign and return a value in the same expression. It can be particularly useful in list comprehensions or other situations where you need to assign a value to a variable and use it in a subsequent expression. Here's an example:

if (n := len(my_list)) > 10:

    print(f"List is too long ({n} elements, expected <= 10)")


Extended Iterable Unpacking: This feature allows you to unpack an iterable into multiple variables, including a "catch-all" variable that gets assigned any remaining items in the iterable. Here's an example:

first, *middle, last = my_list

In this example, first is assigned the first item in my_list, last is assigned the last item, and middle is assigned all the items in between.


Underscore as a placeholder: In interactive Python sessions, you can use the underscore (_) as a shorthand for the result of the last expression. This can be useful if you need to reuse the result of a previous command. Here's an example:

>>> 3 * 4
12
>>> _ + 5
17

slots attribute: The __slots__ attribute allows you to define the attributes of a class and their data types in advance, which can make the class more memory-efficient. Here's an example:

class MyClass:
    __slots__ = ("x", "y")
    
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y

In this example, we are defining a class with two attributes (x and y) and using the __slots__ attribute to define them in advance.

Callable instances: In Python, instances of classes can be made callable by defining a __call__ method. This can be useful if you want to create objects that behave like functions. Here's an example:

class Adder:
    def __init__(self, n):
        self.n = n
        
    def __call__(self, x):
        return self.n + x
    
add_five = Adder(5)
result = add_five(10)
print(result)  # Output: 15


In this example, we are defining a class Adder that takes a number n and defines a __call__ method that adds n to its argument. We then create an instance of Adder with n=5 and use it like a function to add 5 to 10, resulting in 15.

Wednesday 22 March 2023

Creating a LOG IN form by taking image in background

In this we are going to make a Log_In form in which login filling options will be in a transparent box. And you can add your own background image also. 

Note*:- TO change the background go inside the style tag. Inside style tag go to the body and in background-image change the address of the url , give the address of the image which you want to keep in your background. Now,your image will be display on background.

 CODE:- LOG_IN_FORM

LOG IN






Foget Password?
 

  <!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>LOG_IN_FORM</title>
    <style>
body{
    background-image: url('/images/flower.jpg');
    background-position-x: center;
    background-size: cover;
}
.container{
    text-align: center;
    padding: 28px ;
    margin-left: 30%;
    margin-right: 30%;
    background-color: rgb(238, 192, 234);
    border-radius: 20px;
    display: block;
    box-shadow: 0 15px 20px rgba(0,0,0,.2);
    opacity: 0.8;
}
.txt{
    background-color: rgba(223, 210, 227, 0.9);
    border-radius: 25px;
    opacity: 0.9;
    margin-left: 30%;
    margin-right: 30%;
    text-align: center;
    font-family:cursive;
    font-size:xx-large;
    
}
input[type=text] , input[type=password]
{
    width: 350px;   
    margin: 8px 0;
    padding: 12px 20px;   
    display: inline-block ;   
    border: 2px solid skyblue;
    border-radius: 9px;
    box-sizing: border-box ;
    
}
button{
    background-color: #c120ac;   
         width: 30%;  
         border-radius: 20px;
          color: black;   
          padding: 15px;   
          margin: 10px 0px;   
          border: none;   
          cursor: pointer;
}
button:hover{
    opacity: 0.7;
}
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <h2 class="txt">
 LOG IN
    </h2>
    <form action="login.php">
        <div class="container">
            <label>Username</label> <br>
            <input type="text" name="username" placeholder="Enter Your Username" required> <br>
            <label >Password</label> <br>
            <input type="password" name="password" placeholder="Enter Your Password" required> <br>
            <button  type="submit">LOG IN</button>
            <button  type="reset">SIGN UP</button> <br>
            <a href="#">Foget Password?</a>

        </div>
    </form>
</body>
</html>

 OUTPUT:-The image in background is what I have selected in background you can choose your own it will be displayed like this only and you can change the colour of the box also inside the style tag in .txt and .container.

Friday 17 March 2023

Fancy Hover Buttons in HTML using CSS

 In this we are going to add three types of hover button styles which will make your buttons very innovative and attractive.

1.Border Pop

2.Background Slide

3.Background Circle

 Code:-

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>Fancy Buttons</title>
    <style>
        * ,*::before ,*::after{
            box-sizing: border-box;
        }
        body{
            display: flex;
            justify-content: center;
            align-items: center;
            flex-wrap: wrap;
            margin: 0;
        }
        button{
            margin: 1rem;
        }
        .btn{
            background-color: var(--background-color);
            color: #222;
            padding: .5em 1em;
            border: none;
            outline: none;
            position: relative;
            cursor: pointer;

            --background-color: #E3E3E3;
            --border-size:2px;
            --accent-color: #0af;
        }
        .btn.btn-border-pop::before{
            content: "";
            position: absolute;
            top: 0;
            left: 0;
            right: 0;
            bottom:0;
            z-index: -1;
            border: var(--border-size) solid var(--background-color);
            transition: top,left,right,bottom,100ms ease-in-out;
        }
        .btn.btn-border-pop:hover::before,
        .btn.btn-border-pop:focus::before{
            top: calc(var(--border-size)* -2);
            left: calc(var(--border-size)* -2);
            right: calc(var(--border-size)* -2);
            bottom: calc(var(--border-size)* -2);
        }
        .btn.btn-background-slide::before{
            content: "";
            position: absolute;
            top: 0;
            left: 0;
            right: 0;
            bottom: 0;
            background-color: var(--accent-color);
            z-index: -1;
            transition: transform 300ms ease-in-out;
            transform: scale(0);
            transform-origin: left;   
        }
        .btn.btn-background-slide:hover::before,
        .btn.btn-background-slide:focus::before{
        transform: scale(1);

        }

        .btn.btn-background-slide{
            z-index: 1;
            transition: color 300ms ease-in-out;
        }
        .btn.btn-background-slide:hover,
        .btn.btn-background-slide:focus{
            color: white;
        }
        .btn.btn-background-circle::before{
         content: "";
         position: absolute;
         top: 0;
         left:0;
         right:0;
         bottom: 0;
         z-index: -1;
         background-color: var(--background-color);
         border-radius: 50%;
         transition: transform 500ms ease-in-out;

         transform: scale(1.5);
        }
        .btn.btn-background-circle:hover::before,
        .btn.btn-background-circle:focus::before{
         transform:scale(0);
        }


        .btn.btn-background-circle{
            z-index:1;
            overflow: hidden;
            background-color: black;
            transition: color 500ms ease-in-out;
        }
        .btn.btn-background-circle:hover,
        .btn.btn-background-circle:focus{
              color: white;
        }

        .btn.btn-border-underline::before {
            content: "";
            color: brown;
            position: absolute;
            left: 0;
            right: 0;
            bottom: 0;
            height: var(--border-size);
            background-color: var(--accent-color);
            transform: scaleX(0);
        }

    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <button class="btn btn-border-pop">Border Pop</button>
    <button class="btn btn-background-slide">Background Slide</button>
    <button class="btn btn-background-circle">Background Circle</button>
   
</body>
</html> 

Output:-

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