# Introduction to Modern Statistics free pdf

Introduction to Modern Statistics is a re-imagining of a previous title, Introduction to Statistics with Randomization and Simulation. The new book puts a heavy emphasis on exploratory data analysis (specifically exploring multivariate relationships using visualization, summarization, and descriptive models) and provides a thorough discussion of simulation-based inference using randomization and bootstrapping, followed by a presentation of the related Central Limit Theorem based approaches. Other highlights include:

Web native book. The online book is available in HTML, which offers easy navigation and searchability in the browser. The book is built with the bookdown package and the source code to reproduce the book can be found on GitHub. Along with the bookdown site, this book is also available as a PDF and in paperback.

Tutorials. While the main text of the book is agnostic to statistical software and computing language, each part features 4-8 interactive R tutorials (for a total of 32 tutorials) that walk you through the implementation of the part content in R with the tidyverse for data wrangling and visualisation and the tidyverse-friendly infer package for inference. The self-paced and interactive R tutorials were developed using the learnr R package, and only an internet browser is needed to complete them.

Labs. Each part also features 1-2 R based labs. The labs consist of data analysis case studies and they also make heavy use of the tidyverse and infer packages.

Datasets. Datasets used in the book are marked with a link to where you can find the raw data. The majority of these point to the openintro package. You can install the openintro package from CRAN or get the development version on GitHub.

# Python Coding challenge - Day 209 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

h = [5, 6, 7, 8]

h.pop()

h.pop(0)

print(h)

### Solution and Explanation:

Let's break down the given Python code and explain what each line does:

h = [5, 6, 7, 8]

This line creates a list h with the elements 5, 6, 7, and 8.

h = [5, 6, 7, 8]
h.pop()

The pop() method removes and returns the last item from the list. Since no argument is provided, it removes the last element, which is 8.

Before h.pop():

h = [5, 6, 7, 8]
After h.pop():

h = [5, 6, 7]
h.pop(0)

The pop(0) method removes and returns the item at index 0 from the list. This means it removes the first element, which is 5.

Before h.pop(0):

h = [5, 6, 7]
After h.pop(0):

h = [6, 7]
print(h)

This line prints the current state of the list h to the console.

print(h)
The output will be:

[6, 7]
Summary
Initially, the list h is [5, 6, 7, 8].
The first h.pop() removes the last element, resulting in [5, 6, 7].
The second h.pop(0) removes the first element, resulting in [6, 7].
Finally, print(h) outputs [6, 7].
So the final state of the list h after these operations is [6, 7].

# Common Python Errors and How to Fix Them

### ZeroDivisionError: division by zero

This happens when you try to divide a number by zero. Always check the divisor before dividing.

# Correct way

result = 10 / 2

# Incorrect way

result = 10 / 0  # ZeroDivisionError

#clcoding.com

### IndentationError: unexpected indent

Python uses indentation to define code blocks. This error occurs when there’s a misalignment in the indentation.

# Correct way

if True:

print("Hello")

# Incorrect way

if True:

print("Hello")  # IndentationError

#clcoding.com

### ImportError: No module named 'module'

This error means Python can’t find the module you’re trying to import. Check if the module is installed and the name is correct.

# Install the module first
# pip install requests

import requests  # Correct way

import non_existent_module  # ImportError

#clcoding.com

### ValueError: invalid literal for int() with base 10: 'text'

This occurs when you try to convert a string that doesn’t represent a number to an integer. Ensure the string is numeric.

# Correct way
number = int("123")

# Incorrect way
number = int("abc")  # ValueError

#clcoding.com

### AttributeError: 'object' has no attribute 'attribute'

This happens when you try to use an attribute or method that doesn’t exist for an object. Ensure you are calling the correct method or attribute.

class MyClass:
def __init__(self):
self.value = 10

obj = MyClass()

# Correct way
print(obj.value)

# Incorrect way
print(obj.price)  # AttributeError

#clcoding.com

### KeyError: 'key'

This error occurs when you try to access a dictionary key that doesn’t exist. Use .get() method or check if the key exists.

my_dict = {"name": "Alice"}

# Correct way

# Incorrect way
print(my_dict["age"])  # KeyError

#clcoding.com

### IndexError: list index out of range

This occurs when you try to access an index that doesn't exist in a list. Always check the list length before accessing an index.

my_list = [1, 2, 3]

# Correct way
print(my_list[2])  # Prints 3

# Incorrect way
print(my_list[5])  # IndexError

#clcoding.com

### TypeError: unsupported operand type(s)

This happens when you perform an operation on incompatible types. Check the data types of your variables.

# Correct way
result = 5 + 3

# Incorrect way
result = 5 + "3"  # Can't add integer and string

#clcoding.com

### NameError: name 'variable' is not defined

This occurs when you try to use a variable or function before it's declared. Ensure that all variables and functions are defined before use.

# Correct way
name = "Alice"
print(name)

# Incorrect way
print(name)
name = "Alice"

#clcoding.com

### SyntaxError: invalid syntax

This usually means there's a typo or a mistake in the code structure. Check for missing colons, parentheses, or indentation errors. Example:

print("Hello World")
# Missing parenthesis can cause SyntaxError
print "Hello World"

#clcoding.com

# Python Coding challenge - Day 208 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

g = [1, 2, 3]

h = [1, 2, 3]

print(g is h)

print(g == h)

### Solution and Explanation:

In Python, the expressions g = [1, 2, 3] and h = [1, 2, 3] create two separate list objects that contain the same elements. When we use print(g is h) and print(g == h), we are comparing these two lists in different ways.

g is h
The is operator checks for object identity. It returns True if both operands refer to the exact same object in memory.

g = [1, 2, 3]
h = [1, 2, 3]
print(g is h)
In this case, g and h are two different objects that happen to have the same contents. Since they are distinct objects, g is h will return False.

g == h
The == operator checks for value equality. It returns True if the operands have the same value, which for lists means that they have the same elements in the same order.

g = [1, 2, 3]
h = [1, 2, 3]
print(g == h)
Here, g and h have the same elements in the same order, so g == h will return True.

Summary
g is h: Checks if g and h are the same object in memory (identity). Result: False.
g == h: Checks if g and h have the same contents (equality). Result: True.
Thus, the output will be:

False
True

# Python Coding challenge - Day 207 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

str_a = "hello"

str_b = "hello"

print(str_a is str_b)

print(str_a == str_b)

### Solution and Explanation:

In Python, the statements str_a = "hello" and str_b = "hello" both create string objects that contain the same sequence of characters. Let's break down what happens when you use the is and == operators to compare these two strings.

is Operator
The is operator checks for object identity. It returns True if both operands refer to the same object in memory.

== Operator
The == operator checks for value equality. It returns True if the values of the operands are equal, regardless of whether they are the same object in memory.

Now, let's analyze the code:

str_a = "hello"
str_b = "hello"
print(str_a is str_b)  # This checks if str_a and str_b are the same object
print(str_a == str_b)  # This checks if the values of str_a and str_b are equal
str_a is str_b
In Python, small strings and some other immutable objects are sometimes interned for efficiency. String interning means that identical strings may refer to the same object in memory. Because "hello" is a short, commonly used string, Python often interns it. As a result, str_a and str_b will likely refer to the same interned string object. Therefore, str_a is str_b will typically return True because they are the same object in memory.

str_a == str_b
The == operator compares the values of str_a and str_b. Since both strings contain the same sequence of characters "hello", str_a == str_b will return True regardless of whether they are the same object in memory.

Summary
str_a is str_b checks if str_a and str_b refer to the exact same object. In this case, it will likely be True due to string interning.
str_a == str_b checks if str_a and str_b have the same value. This will be True because both strings contain "hello".
So, the output of the code will be:

True
True
This illustrates both object identity and value equality for these string variables in Python.

## Thursday 16 May 2024

### Dictionary Methods

Dictionaries come with several handy methods such as setdefault, update, pop, popitem, and clear.

my_dict = {'name': 'Alice', 'age': 25}

# setdefault
my_dict.setdefault('city', 'Unknown')
print(my_dict)

# update
my_dict.update({'age': 26, 'city': 'New York'})
print(my_dict)

# pop
age = my_dict.pop('age')
print(age)  # Output: 26
print(my_dict)

# popitem
item = my_dict.popitem()
print(item)
print(my_dict)

# clear
my_dict.clear()
print(my_dict)

#clcoding.com
{'name': 'Alice', 'age': 25, 'city': 'Unknown'}
{'name': 'Alice', 'age': 26, 'city': 'New York'}
26
{'name': 'Alice', 'city': 'New York'}
('city', 'New York')
{'name': 'Alice'}
{}

### Ordered Dictionaries

As of Python 3.7, dictionaries maintain insertion order by default. The OrderedDict from the collections module was used for this purpose in earlier versions.

my_dict = {'first': 1, 'second': 2, 'third': 3}
print(my_dict)

#clcoding.com
{'first': 1, 'second': 2, 'third': 3}

### Merging Dictionaries

Starting with Python 3.9, you can use the | operator to merge dictionaries.

dict1 = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
dict2 = {'b': 3, 'c': 4}
merged_dict = dict1 | dict2
print(merged_dict)

#clcoding.com
{'a': 1, 'b': 3, 'c': 4}
Dictionary Views
The keys, values, and items methods return dictionary view objects, which are dynamic and reflect changes in the dictionary.

my_dict = {'name': 'Alice', 'age': 25}
keys_view = my_dict.keys()
print(keys_view)
my_dict['city'] = 'New York'
print(keys_view)

#clcoding.com
dict_keys(['name', 'age'])
dict_keys(['name', 'age', 'city'])

### Default Values with get and defaultdict

Using the get method, you can provide a default value if the key is not found.

my_dict = {'name': 'Alice'}
With defaultdict from the collections module, you can provide default values for missing keys.

from collections import defaultdict

dd = defaultdict(int)
dd['a'] += 1
print(dd)

#clcoding.com
defaultdict(<class 'int'>, {'a': 1})

### Dictionary Comprehensions

Just like list comprehensions, you can create dictionaries using dictionary comprehensions.

squares = {x: x*x for x in range(6)}
print(squares)

#clcoding.com
{0: 0, 1: 1, 2: 4, 3: 9, 4: 16, 5: 25}

### Iterating Through Dictionaries

You can iterate through keys, values, or key-value pairs in a dictionary.

my_dict = {'name': 'Alice', 'age': 25}
for key in my_dict:
print(key)

for value in my_dict.values():
print(value)

for key, value in my_dict.items():
print(key, value)

#clcoding.com
name
age
Alice
25
name Alice
age 25

### Keys Must Be Immutable and Unique

The keys in a dictionary must be immutable types (like strings, numbers, or tuples) and must be unique.

my_dict = {(1, 2): 'tuple key', 'name': 'Alice', 3.14: 'pi'}
print(my_dict)

#clcoding.com
{(1, 2): 'tuple key', 'name': 'Alice', 3.14: 'pi'}

### Efficient Lookup Time

Dictionaries have average O(1) time complexity for lookups, insertions, and deletions due to their underlying hash table implementation.

my_dict = {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3}
print(my_dict['b'])

#clcoding.com
2

### Dynamic and Mutable

Dictionaries are mutable, which means you can change their content without changing their identity.

my_dict = {'name': 'Alice', 'age': 25}
my_dict['age'] = 26
my_dict['city'] = 'New York'
print(my_dict)

#clcoding.com
{'name': 'Alice', 'age': 26, 'city': 'New York'}

# Python Coding challenge - Day 206 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

dict_a = {"a": 1, "b": 2}

dict_b = {"a": 1, "b": 2}

print(dict_a is dict_b)

print(dict_a == dict_b)

### Solution and Explanation:

This code creates two dictionaries, dict_a and dict_b, with identical key-value pairs. Then it prints the results of two different comparisons:

print(dict_a is dict_b): This checks whether dict_a and dict_b refer to the same object in memory. In this case, they are two separate dictionary objects, so the output will be False.

print(dict_a == dict_b): This checks whether the contents of dict_a and dict_b are the same. Since they have the same key-value pairs, the output will be True.

# Python Coding challenge - Day 205 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

num = [5, 6]

*midd, lst = num, num[-1]

print(midd, lst)

### Solution and Explanation:

Let's break down the code step by step:

num = [5, 6]: This line creates a list called num containing two integers, 5 and 6.

*midd, lst = num, num[-1]: Here, we're using extended iterable unpacking. Let's dissect this line:

*midd: The * operator is used to gather any remaining items in the iterable (in this case, the list num) into a list. So, midd will contain all elements of num except the last one.

, lst: This part assigns the last item of the num list to the variable lst. In this case, it's assigning 6 to lst.

Therefore, after this line executes, midd will be [5] and lst will be 6.

print(midd, lst): This line prints the variables midd and lst. So, it will output [5] 6.

So, overall, the code snippet initializes a list num with two elements [5, 6], then it unpacks this list into two variables: midd, which contains all elements of num except the last one ([5]), and lst, which contains the last element of num (6). Finally, it prints the values of midd and lst.

# Python Coding challenge - Day 204 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

num = [7, 8, 9]

*mid, last = num[:-1]

print(mid, last)

### Solution and Explanation:

let's break down the code:

num = [7, 8, 9]
*mid, last = num[:-1]
print(mid, last)
num = [7, 8, 9]: This line creates a list called num containing the elements 7, 8, and 9.

*mid, last = num[:-1]: This line is a bit more complex. It's using extended unpacking and slicing. Let's break it down:

num[:-1]: This slices the list num from the beginning to the second-to-last element. So, it creates a new list [7, 8].

*mid, last: Here, the *mid notation is used to capture multiple items from the sliced list except the last one, and last captures the last item. So, mid will contain [7, 8], and last will contain 9.

print(mid, last): This line prints the values of mid and last.

So, when you run this code, it will print:

[7, 8] 9
This demonstrates how you can use extended unpacking along with slicing to split a list into multiple variables in Python.

# Python Libraries for Financial Analysis and Portfolio Management

import statsmodels.api as sm
import numpy as np

# Generate some sample data
x = np.random.rand(100)
y = 2 * x + np.random.randn(100)

# Fit a linear regression model

print("Regression coefficients:", model.params)
print("R-squared:", model.rsquared)

#clcoding.com
import pandas as pd

# Create a simple DataFrame
data = {'Name': ['Alice', 'Bob', 'Charlie'],
'Age': [25, 30, 35],
'Salary': [50000, 60000, 70000]}
df = pd.DataFrame(data)

# Perform data analysis
print("\nAverage salary:", df['Salary'].mean())

#clcoding.com
import numpy as np

# Create a simple array
arr = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])

# Perform numerical operations
print("Sum:", np.sum(arr))
print("Mean:", np.mean(arr))
print("Standard deviation:", np.std(arr))

#clcoding.com
from ibapi.client import EClient
from ibapi.wrapper import EWrapper

class MyWrapper(EWrapper):
def __init__(self):
super().__init__()

class MyClient(EClient):
def __init__(self, wrapper):
EClient.__init__(self, wrapper)

app = MyClient(MyWrapper())
app.connect("127.0.0.1", 7497, clientId=1)

app.run()

#clcoding.com
import numpy as np
from scipy import optimize

# Define a simple objective function
def objective(x):
return x**2 + 10*np.sin(x)

# Optimize the objective function
result = optimize.minimize(objective, x0=0)

print("Minimum value found at:", result.x)
print("Objective function value at minimum:", result.fun)

#clcoding.com
from riskfolio.Portfolio import Portfolio

# Create a simple portfolio
data = {'Asset1': [0.05, 0.1, 0.15],
'Asset2': [0.08, 0.12, 0.18],
'Asset3': [0.06, 0.11, 0.14]}
portfolio = Portfolio(returns=data)

# Perform portfolio optimization
portfolio.optimize()

print("Optimal weights:", portfolio.w)
print("Expected return:", portfolio.mu)
print("Volatility:", portfolio.sigma)

#clcoding.com

# Python Coding challenge - Day 203 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

num = [1, 2, 3]

*middle, last = num

print(middle, last)

### Solution and Explanation:

Let's break down the code step by step:

num = [1, 2, 3]: This line initializes a list called num with three elements: 1, 2, and 3.

*middle, last = num: This line uses a feature called "extended iterable unpacking". Here, *middle is used to capture all elements except the last one from the list num, and last captures the last element of the list.

*middle: This syntax with the * operator before a variable name is used to capture multiple elements from an iterable (like a list) into a new list. In this case, it captures the first two elements [1, 2] into the variable middle.

last: This variable captures the last element of the list, which is 3, and assigns it to the variable last.

print(middle, last): This line prints out the values of the variables middle and last.

Putting it all together, if we execute this code, it will print:

[1, 2] 3
This is because middle contains the first two elements [1, 2] from the list num, and last contains the last element 3 from the list num.

# Happy Mother's Day!

### Code:

import pyfiglet

from termcolor import colored

import random

def get_random_font_style():

# List of available Figlet font styles

font_styles = pyfiglet.FigletFont.getFonts()

# Choose a random font style from the list

return random.choice(font_styles)

def get_random_color():

# List of available colors

colors = ['red', 'green', 'yellow', 'blue', 'magenta', 'cyan', 'white']

# Choose a random color from the list

return random.choice(colors)

def wish_mothers_day():

# Get a random font style and color

random_font_style = get_random_font_style()

random_color = get_random_color()

# Create a Figlet font object with the random style

font = pyfiglet.Figlet(font=random_font_style)

# Print the decorative greeting in the chosen color

print(colored(font.renderText("Happy Mother's Day!"), random_color))

wish_mothers_day()

#clcoding.com

### Solution and Explanation:

This code generates a Mother's Day wish with a randomly selected font style and color using the pyfiglet and termcolor libraries in Python. Here's a breakdown of what each part of the code does:

import pyfiglet: Imports the pyfiglet library, which is used to create ASCII art text.

from termcolor import colored: Imports the colored function from the termcolor library, which is used to add color to text in the terminal.

import random: Imports the random module, which is used to generate random font styles and colors.

get_random_font_style(): Defines a function that returns a random font style chosen from the available Figlet font styles provided by pyfiglet.

get_random_color(): Defines a function that returns a random color chosen from a predefined list of colors.

wish_mothers_day(): Defines the main function responsible for printing the Mother's Day wish. Inside this function:

random_font_style is assigned a random font style using get_random_font_style().
random_color is assigned a random color using get_random_color().
A Figlet font object is created using the random font style.
The text "Happy Mother's Day!" is rendered using the chosen font style and colored with the chosen color using the colored function.
The rendered text is printed to the console.
wish_mothers_day(): Finally, the wish_mothers_day() function is called to generate and print the Mother's Day wish with a random font style and color.

This code allows you to produce colorful and decorative Mother's Day wishes each time it's run, adding a touch of randomness and visual appeal to the message.

# Type Hints in Python

Type hints in Python are an excellent tool for improving code quality and maintainability, especially in larger projects.

from typing import Optional

class TreeNode:

def __init__(self, value: int) -> None:

self.value = value

self.left: Optional['TreeNode'] = None

self.right: Optional['TreeNode'] = None

#clcoding.com

def __init__(self, value: int, next_node: 'LinkedListNode' = None) -> None:

self.value = value

self.next = next_node

#clcoding.com

from typing import Optional

class TreeNode:

def __init__(self, value: int) -> None:

self.value = value

self.left: Optional['TreeNode'] = None

self.right: Optional['TreeNode'] = None

#clcoding.com

from typing import TypeVar

class Animal:

def speak(self) -> str:

raise NotImplementedError

class Dog(Animal):

def speak(self) -> str:

return "Woof!"

T = TypeVar('T', bound=Animal)

def make_sound(animal: T) -> str:

return animal.speak()

#clcoding.com

from typing import Callable

def apply_func(func: Callable[[int, int], int], a: int, b: int) -> int:

return func(a, b)

#clcoding.com

from typing import Iterable, TypeVar

T = TypeVar('T')

def process_items(items: Iterable[T]) -> None:

for item in items:

# Process each item

pass

#clcoding.com

from typing import TypeVar, Iterable

T = TypeVar('T')

def first_element(items: Iterable[T]) -> T:

return next(iter(items))

#clcoding.com

from typing import List, Tuple

Point = Tuple[int, int]

Polygon = List[Point]

def area(polygon: Polygon) -> float:

# Calculate area of polygon

pass

#clcoding.com

from typing import Union
def square_root(num: Union[int, float]) -> Union[int, float]:
return num ** 0.5

#clcoding.com
from typing import Optional

def greet(name: Optional[str]) -> str:
if name:
return f"Hello, {name}!"
else:
return "Hello, anonymous!"

#clcoding.com

# Automating File Compression with gzip

### Code:

import gzip

import shutil

def compress_file(input_file, output_file):

with open(input_file, 'rb') as f_in:

with gzip.open(output_file, 'wb') as f_out:

shutil.copyfileobj(f_in, f_out)

# Example usage

input_filename = 'clcoding.txt'

output_filename = 'clcoding.txt.gz'

compress_file(input_filename, output_filename)

#clcoding.com

### Explanation:

Let's break down the code step by step:

import gzip: This line imports the gzip module, which provides functionalities for working with gzip-compressed files in Python. The gzip module allows you to create, read, and write gzip-compressed files.

import shutil: This line imports the shutil module, which provides a higher-level interface for file operations. In this script, shutil is used to copy the contents of one file to another efficiently.

def compress_file(input_file, output_file):: This line defines a function named compress_file that takes two parameters: input_file (the path to the file to be compressed) and output_file (the path where the compressed file will be saved).

with open(input_file, 'rb') as f_in:: This line opens the input file (input_file) in binary read mode ('rb') using the open() function. It uses a context manager (with statement) to automatically close the file when the block is exited. The file object is assigned to the variable f_in.

with gzip.open(output_file, 'wb') as f_out:: This line opens the output file (output_file) in gzip-compressed write mode ('wb') using gzip.open(). Similar to the previous with statement, it also uses a context manager to automatically close the file when the block is exited. The compressed file object is assigned to the variable f_out.

shutil.copyfileobj(f_in, f_out): This line copies the contents of the input file (f_in) to the gzip-compressed output file (f_out). It efficiently copies data between file objects without loading the entire file into memory.

input_filename = 'clcoding.txt': This line defines a variable input_filename and assigns it the name of the input file (clcoding.txt). This file will be compressed.

output_filename = 'clcoding.txt.gz': This line defines a variable output_filename and assigns it the name of the output file (clcoding.txt.gz). This file will store the compressed data.

compress_file(input_filename, output_filename): This line calls the compress_file function with the input and output filenames as arguments, which compresses the input file and saves the compressed data to the output file.

#clcoding.com: This line appears to be a comment, possibly indicating the source of the file (clcoding.com). Comments in Python are preceded by the # symbol and are ignored by the interpreter.

This script takes a file (clcoding.txt), compresses it using gzip, and saves the compressed data to a new file (clcoding.txt.gz).

# Python Coding challenge - Day 202 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

x = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a, *_, b = x
print(a, b)

### Solution and Explanation:

Let's break down the Python code step by step:

x = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a, *_, b = x
print(a, b)
List Assignment: x = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

This line initializes a list named x with five elements: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].
Extended Unpacking: a, *_, b = x

This line uses extended unpacking to assign values from the list x to variables a and b, while ignoring the rest of the elements.
The * (asterisk) operator is used to capture multiple values into a list. In this case, * is followed by an underscore (_), which is a common convention in Python to indicate that the variable is a placeholder and its value is not used.
The first element of x is assigned to a, and the last element is assigned to b, while all other elements are captured by the _ variable (which is ignored).
Print Statement: print(a, b)

This line prints the values of variables a and b separated by a space.
So, what does this code output?

a will be assigned the value 1, which is the first element of the list x.
b will be assigned the value 5, which is the last element of the list x.
The other elements of the list x are captured by the _ variable, but since they are not used in the print statement, they are ignored.
Therefore, the output of the code will be:
1 5

# Donut Charts using Python

### Code:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Data to plot
labels = ['A', 'B', 'C', 'D']
sizes = [15, 30, 45, 10]

# Plot
plt.pie(sizes, labels=labels, autopct='%1.1f%%', startangle=140)

# Draw a circle at the center of pie to make it look like a donut
centre_circle = plt.Circle((0,0),0.70,fc='white')
fig = plt.gcf()

# Equal aspect ratio ensures that pie is drawn as a circle
plt.axis('equal')

plt.title('Basic Donut Chart')
plt.show()

#clcoding.com

### Explanation:

In this code snippet, we're using the matplotlib.pyplot module, which is a powerful library in Python for creating static, animated, and interactive visualizations. We're importing it using the alias plt, which is a common convention for brevity.

Here's a breakdown of the code:

Importing matplotlib.pyplot: import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
This line imports the matplotlib.pyplot module and assigns it the alias plt, allowing us to reference it with the shorter name plt throughout the code.

labels = ['A', 'B', 'C', 'D']
sizes = [15, 30, 45, 10]
These lines define the data we want to visualize. labels contains the labels for each segment of the pie chart, and sizes contains the corresponding sizes or values for each segment.
Plotting the pie chart:

plt.pie(sizes, labels=labels, autopct='%1.1f%%', startangle=140)
Here, we use the plt.pie() function to create a pie chart. We pass sizes as the data to plot, labels to label each segment, autopct='%1.1f%%' to display the percentage for each segment, and startangle=140 to rotate the pie chart to start from the angle 140 degrees.
Drawing a circle to create a donut effect:

centre_circle = plt.Circle((0,0),0.70,fc='white')
fig = plt.gcf()
These lines draw a white circle at the center of the pie chart, creating a donut-like appearance. The plt.Circle() function creates a circle with the specified parameters: center (0,0) and radius 0.70.
Setting equal aspect ratio:

plt.axis('equal')
This line ensures that the plot is displayed with equal aspect ratio, so the pie chart appears as a circle rather than an ellipse.
Adding a title and displaying the plot:

plt.title('Basic Donut Chart')
plt.show()
Here, we set the title of the plot to 'Basic Donut Chart' using plt.title(), and then plt.show() displays the plot on the screen.
This code generates a basic donut chart with four segments labeled A, B, C, and D, where the size of each segment is determined by the values in the sizes list.

### Code:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Data to plot
labels = ['A', 'B', 'C', 'D']
sizes = [15, 30, 45, 10]
explode = (0, 0.1, 0, 0)  # only "explode" the 2nd slice

# Plot
plt.pie(sizes, explode=explode, labels=labels, autopct='%1.1f%%', startangle=140)

# Draw a circle at the center of pie to make it look like a donut
centre_circle = plt.Circle((0,0),0.70,fc='white')
fig = plt.gcf()

# Equal aspect ratio ensures that pie is drawn as a circle
plt.axis('equal')

plt.title('Donut Chart with Exploded Slices')
plt.show()

#clcoding.com

### Explanation:

This code snippet is similar to the previous one, but it adds exploding effect to one of the slices in the pie chart. Let's break down the code:

Importing matplotlib.pyplot:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
This line imports the matplotlib.pyplot module and assigns it the alias plt, allowing us to reference it with the shorter name plt throughout the code.
Data to plot:

labels = ['A', 'B', 'C', 'D']
sizes = [15, 30, 45, 10]
explode = (0, 0.1, 0, 0)  # only "explode" the 2nd slice
Here, labels contains the labels for each segment of the pie chart, sizes contains the corresponding sizes or values for each segment, and explode contains the magnitude of the explosion for each slice. In this case, we're exploding the second slice ('B') by 0.1.
Plotting the pie chart:

plt.pie(sizes, explode=explode, labels=labels, autopct='%1.1f%%', startangle=140)
This line creates a pie chart using plt.pie(). The explode parameter is used to specify the amount by which to explode each slice. Here, we're exploding only the second slice ('B') by 0.1. Other parameters are similar to the previous example.
Drawing a circle to create a donut effect:

centre_circle = plt.Circle((0,0),0.70,fc='white')
fig = plt.gcf()
This part is the same as before. It draws a white circle at the center of the pie chart, creating a donut-like appearance.
Setting equal aspect ratio:

plt.axis('equal')
This line ensures that the plot is displayed with an equal aspect ratio, so the pie chart appears as a circle.
Adding a title and displaying the plot:

plt.title('Donut Chart with Exploded Slices')
plt.show()
Here, we set the title of the plot to 'Donut Chart with Exploded Slices' and then display the plot.
This code generates a donut chart with four segments labeled A, B, C, and D, where the second slice ('B') is exploded outwards. The size of each segment is determined by the values in the sizes list.

### Code:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Data to plot
labels = ['A', 'B', 'C', 'D']
sizes1 = [25, 30, 35, 10]
sizes2 = [20, 40, 20, 20]

# Plot
fig, ax = plt.subplots()
ax.pie(sizes2, radius=1, startangle=140, colors=['red', 'green', 'blue', 'yellow'])

# Draw a circle at the center of pie to make it look like a donut
centre_circle = plt.Circle((0,0),0.8,fc='white')
fig = plt.gcf()

# Equal aspect ratio ensures that pie is drawn as a circle
ax.set(aspect="equal")
plt.title('Donut Chart with Multiple Rings')
plt.show()

#clcoding.com

### Explanation:

This code snippet creates a donut chart with multiple rings, demonstrating the capability to display more than one dataset in the same chart. Let's dissect the code:

Importing matplotlib.pyplot:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
This line imports the matplotlib.pyplot module and assigns it the alias plt.
Data to plot:

labels = ['A', 'B', 'C', 'D']
sizes1 = [25, 30, 35, 10]
sizes2 = [20, 40, 20, 20]
Two sets of data are defined here: sizes1 and sizes2. Each set represents the values for different rings of the donut chart.
Plotting the donut chart:

fig, ax = plt.subplots()
ax.pie(sizes2, radius=1, startangle=140, colors=['red', 'green', 'blue', 'yellow'])
This code creates a subplot (fig, ax = plt.subplots()) and then plots two pie charts on the same subplot using ax.pie().
The first ax.pie() call plots the outer ring (sizes1) with a larger radius (radius=1.2), while the second call plots the inner ring (sizes2) with a smaller radius (radius=1).
labels, autopct, and startangle parameters are used to configure the appearance of the pie charts.
Different colors are specified for the inner ring using the colors parameter.
Drawing a circle to create a donut effect:

centre_circle = plt.Circle((0,0),0.8,fc='white')
fig = plt.gcf()
This part is similar to previous examples. It draws a white circle at the center of the pie chart to create the donut-like appearance.
Setting equal aspect ratio:

ax.set(aspect="equal")
This line sets the aspect ratio of the subplot to 'equal', ensuring that the pie charts are displayed as circles.
Adding a title and displaying the plot:

plt.title('Donut Chart with Multiple Rings')
plt.show()
Finally, the title of the plot is set to 'Donut Chart with Multiple Rings', and the plot is displayed.
This code generates a donut chart with two rings, each representing different datasets (sizes1 and sizes2). Each ring has its own set of labels and colors, and they are displayed concentrically to create the donut chart effect.

# Python Coding challenge - Day 201 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

class Powerizer(int):

def __pow__(self, other):

return super().__pow__(other ** 2)

p = Powerizer(2)

result = p ** 3

print(result)

### Solution and Explanation:

let's break down the code:

Class Definition:

class Powerizer(int):
def __pow__(self, other):
return super().__pow__(other ** 2)
Powerizer(int): This line defines a class named Powerizer that inherits from the int class. Instances of Powerizer will inherit all properties and methods of integers.
def __pow__(self, other): This method overrides the power behavior (__pow__) for instances of the Powerizer class. It's invoked when the ** operator is used with instances of Powerizer.
return super().__pow__(other ** 2): Inside the __pow__ method, it squares the other operand and then calls the __pow__ method of the superclass (which is int). It passes the squared other operand to the superclass method. Essentially, it calculates the power of the Powerizer instance with the squared value of other.
Object Instantiation:

p = Powerizer(2)
This line creates an instance of the Powerizer class with the value 2.
Power Operation:

result = p ** 3
This line performs a power operation using the ** operator. Since p is an instance of Powerizer, the overridden __pow__ method is invoked. The value 3 is passed as other. Inside the overridden __pow__ method, 3 is squared to 9. Then, the superclass method (int.__pow__) is called with the squared other value. Essentially, it calculates p raised to the power of 9.

print(result)
This line prints the value of result, which is the result of the power operation performed in the previous step.
So, the output of this code will be 512, which is the result of 2 raised to the power of 9 (2^9).

# Python Coding challenge - Day 200 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

class Decrementer(int):

def __sub__(self, other):

return super().__sub__(other - 1)

d = Decrementer(5)

result = d - 3

print(result)

### Solution and Explanation:

Class Definition:

class Decrementer(int):

def __sub__(self, other):

return super().__sub__(other - 1)

Decrementer(int): This line creates a class called Decrementer which inherits from the int class. Instances of Decrementer will inherit all the properties and methods of integers.

def __sub__(self, other): This method overrides the subtraction behavior (__sub__) for instances of the Decrementer class. It is called when the - operator is used with instances of Decrementer.

return super().__sub__(other - 1): Inside the __sub__ method, it subtracts 1 from the other operand and then calls the __sub__ method of the superclass (which is int). It passes the modified other operand to the superclass method. Essentially, it performs subtraction of the Decrementer instance with the modified value of other.

Object Instantiation:

d = Decrementer(5)

This line creates an instance of the Decrementer class with the value 5.

Subtraction Operation:

result = d - 3

This line performs a subtraction operation using the - operator. Since d is an instance of Decrementer, the overridden __sub__ method is invoked. The value 3 is passed as other. Inside the overridden __sub__ method, 1 is subtracted from other, making it 2. Then, the superclass method (int.__sub__) is called with the modified other value. Essentially, it subtracts 2 from d, resulting in the final value.

print(result)

This line prints the value of result, which is the result of the subtraction operation performed in the previous step.

So, the output of this code will be 3, which is the result of subtracting 3 - 1 from 5.

# Python Coding challenge - Day 199 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

class Incrementer(int):

i = Incrementer(5)

result = i + 3

print(result)

### Solution and Explanation:

let's break it down step by step:

Class Definition:
class Incrementer(int):
Incrementer(int): This line defines a class named Incrementer that inherits from the int class. This means that instances of Incrementer will behave like integers but with additional functionality.
def __add__(self, other): This method overrides the addition behavior (__add__) of instances of the Incrementer class. Whenever the + operator is used with instances of Incrementer, this method is invoked.
return super().__add__(other + 1): Inside the __add__ method, it adds 1 to the other operand and then calls the __add__ method of the superclass (which is int in this case) using super(). It passes the modified other operand to the superclass method. Essentially, it performs addition of the Incrementer instance with the modified value of other.
Object Instantiation:

i = Incrementer(5)
This line creates an instance of the Incrementer class with the value 5. Since Incrementer inherits from int, it behaves like an integer but with the overridden __add__ method.

result = i + 3
This line performs an addition operation using the + operator. Since i is an instance of Incrementer, the overridden __add__ method is invoked. The value 3 is passed as other. Inside the overridden __add__ method, 1 is added to other, making it 4. Then, the superclass method (int.__add__) is called with the modified other value. In essence, it adds i to 4, resulting in the final value.
Print Result:

print(result)
This line prints the value of result, which is the result of the addition operation performed in the previous step.
So, the output of this code will be 9, which is the result of adding 5 (the value of i) to 3 + 1.

# Python Coding challenge - Day 198 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

def __mul__(self, other):
return super().__mul__(other + 4)
result = q * 3
print(result)

### Solution and Explanation:

let's delve into this code:

class Quadrupler(int):: This line establishes a new class named Quadrupler that inherits from the int class. As a result, Quadrupler inherits all the attributes and methods of the int class.
def __mul__(self, other):: This creates a special method __mul__() which overrides the multiplication behavior of instances of the Quadrupler class. This method is invoked when the * operator is utilized with instances of the Quadrupler class.
return super().__mul__(other + 4): Within the __mul__() method, it adds 4 to the other operand and then invokes the __mul__() method of the superclass (in this case, the int class) using super(). It transfers the adjusted other operand to the superclass method. Essentially, it performs multiplication of the Quadrupler instance with the modified value of other.
q = Quadrupler(5): This line instantiates an object of the Quadrupler class with the value 5. Since the Quadrupler class inherits from int, it can be initialized with an integer value.
result = q * 3: This line utilizes the * operator with the Quadrupler instance q and the integer 3. Since the Quadrupler class has overridden the __mul__() method, the overridden behavior is invoked. In this case, it adds 4 to the other operand (which is 3) and then performs multiplication.
print(result): Lastly, this line prints the value of result.

other is 3.
4 is added to other, making it 7.
The __mul__() method of the int class (the superclass) is invoked with 7 as the argument.
The superclass's __mul__() method multiplies the Quadrupler instance (q) by 7.
The outcome of this multiplication is assigned to result.
Finally, result is printed.
Hence, when you execute this code, it should output 35, which is the result of multiplying 5 by (3 + 4).

# Python Coding challenge - Day 197 | What is the output of the following Python Code?

### Code:

class Tripler(int):
def __mul__(self, other):
return super().__mul__(other - 2)
t = Tripler(6)
result = t * 4
print(result)

### Solution and Explanation:

let's break down the code step by step:

class Tripler(int):: This line defines a new class named Tripler that inherits from the int class. This means that Tripler inherits all the properties and methods of the int class.
def __mul__(self, other):: This defines a special method __mul__() which overrides the multiplication behavior of instances of the Tripler class. This method is called when the * operator is used with instances of the Tripler class.
return super().__mul__(other - 2): Inside the __mul__() method, it subtracts 2 from the other operand and then calls the __mul__() method of the superclass (in this case, the int class) using super(). It passes the modified other operand to the superclass method. Essentially, it performs multiplication of the Tripler instance with the modified value of other.
t = Tripler(6): This line creates an instance of the Tripler class with the value 6. The Tripler class inherits from int, so it can be initialized with an integer value.
result = t * 4: This line uses the * operator with the Tripler instance t and the integer 4. Since the Tripler class has overridden the __mul__() method, the overridden behavior is invoked. In this case, it subtracts 2 from the other operand (which is 4) and then performs multiplication.
print(result): Finally, this line prints the value of result.
Now, let's follow through the multiplication:

other is 4.
2 is subtracted from other, making it 2.
The __mul__() method of the int class (the superclass) is called with 2 as the argument.
The superclass's __mul__() method multiplies the Tripler instance (t) by 2.
The result of this multiplication is assigned to result.
Finally, result is printed.
So, when you run this code, it should output 12, which is the result of multiplying 6 by (4 - 2).

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