Monday, 19 March 2018

Fundamental of Object Oriented Programming

Our computer programs consists of two element i.e code and data. A program is conceptually organized around the data.
According to the way of flow of the data, there are two types of programming paradigms.The first way is called procedure oriented programming.In which everything is organized in functions by functions.
Flow of execution of the program is taken through the liner steps.The emphasis is given on the procedures rather than data.The data can be accessed anywhere in the functions.So there is no security for this data.
C is the best example of such procedure oriented programming. C language employed this programming approach successfully.
                                    Fig: Procedure Oriented Methodology

The second way is called object oriented programming.Basically,it is introduced to eliminate the flaws in the procedure oriented programming.
It is the best way to manage the increasing complexity in procedure orientation.Object Oriented programming organizes the program around the object i.e it treats the data as a critical element in the program development and does not allow it to flow freely around the system.
It ties this data more closely to the functions that operate on it and protects it from unintentional by other functions.
An object oriented programming can be characterized as 'data controlling access to code'. It has been given several organizational benefits.
                               Fig: object oriented Methodology

As shown in the above figure the data is centered element in the object, which can be only be accessed by all the functions defined in it. ( In java's terminology, function is called as method).

Object Oriented Programming is having following main features.

   Reduction in the complexity
      Program are divided into objects, which reduces the complexity of the program.

   Importance of data
      Emphasis is given on the data rather than procedure.

   Creation of new data structure
      Method that operate on the data of an object are tied together in a single data structure.

   Data Hiding
      The data used in different object is hidden from outside world.They can not be accessed outside functions.

   Characterization of the objects
      Data structures are designed such a way that they characterize the objects.

   Communication among objects
      Objects in a single program can communicate with each other through methods.

   Extensibility
      New data and methods can be easily added whenever necessary. So, usability of the program is extended.

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