### Code:

def selection_sort(arr):

n = len(arr)

for i in range(n):

min_idx = i

for j in range(i+1, n):

if arr[j] < arr[min_idx]:

min_idx = j

arr[i], arr[min_idx] = arr[min_idx], arr[i]

return arr

# Example usage:

arr = [64, 34, 25, 12, 22, 11, 90]

print("Original array:", arr)

sorted_arr = selection_sort(arr)

print("Sorted array:", sorted_arr)

#clcoding.com

### Explanation:

### Code:

def quick_sort(arr):

if len(arr) <= 1:

return arr

pivot = arr[len(arr) // 2]

left = [x for x in arr if x < pivot]

middle = [x for x in arr if x == pivot]

right = [x for x in arr if x > pivot]

return quick_sort(left) + middle + quick_sort(right)

# Example usage:

arr = [64, 34, 25, 12, 22, 11, 90]

print("Original array:", arr)

sorted_arr = quick_sort(arr)

print("Sorted array:", sorted_arr)

#clcoding.com

### Explanation:

The quick_sort function implements the quicksort algorithm, a popular sorting algorithm known for its efficiency. Here's how it works:

Base Case:

If the length of the input array arr is 0 or 1, it is already sorted, so we return the array as is.

Pivot Selection:

Choose a pivot element from the array. In this implementation, the pivot is selected as the element at the middle index (len(arr) // 2).

Partitioning:

Partition the array into three sub-arrays:

left: Contains elements less than the pivot.

middle: Contains elements equal to the pivot.

right: Contains elements greater than the pivot.

Recursion:

Recursively apply the quicksort algorithm to the left and right sub-arrays.

Combine:

Concatenate the sorted left, middle, and right sub-arrays to form the sorted array.

Now, let's walk through the provided example:

arr = [64, 34, 25, 12, 22, 11, 90]

We start with the original array [64, 34, 25, 12, 22, 11, 90].

sorted_arr = quick_sort(arr)

We call the quick_sort function with the array arr and store the sorted array in sorted_arr.

print("Sorted array:", sorted_arr)

We print the sorted array.

Output:

Original array: [64, 34, 25, 12, 22, 11, 90]

Sorted array: [11, 12, 22, 25, 34, 64, 90]

The original array is [64, 34, 25, 12, 22, 11, 90].

After sorting, the array becomes [11, 12, 22, 25, 34, 64, 90], which is printed as the sorted array.

### Code:

def bubble_sort(arr):

n = len(arr)

for i in range(n):

for j in range(0, n-i-1):

if arr[j] > arr[j+1]:

arr[j], arr[j+1] = arr[j+1], arr[j]

return arr

# Example usage:

arr = [64, 34, 25, 12, 22, 11, 90]

print("Original array:", arr)

sorted_arr = bubble_sort(arr)

print("Sorted array:", sorted_arr)

#clcoding.com

### Explanation:

### Code:

def insertion_sort(arr):

for i in range(1, len(arr)):

key = arr[i]

j = i - 1

while j >= 0 and key < arr[j]:

arr[j + 1] = arr[j]

j -= 1

arr[j + 1] = key

return arr

# Example usage:

arr = [64, 34, 25, 12, 22, 11, 90]

print("Original array:", arr)

sorted_arr = insertion_sort(arr)

print("Sorted array:", sorted_arr)

#clcoding.com

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