Sunday, 1 April 2018

Data Types in C Language

A programming language is proposed to help programmer to process certain kinds of data and to provide useful output. The task of data processing is accomplished by executing series of commands called program. A program usually contains different types of data types (integer, float, character etc.) and need to store the values being used in the program. C language is rich of data types. A C programmer has to employ proper data type as per his requirements.

   C has different data types for different types of data and can be broadly classified as:
      1. Primary data types
      2. Secondary data types

Primary data types consists following data types.  

Data Types in C



Integer type :-
  Integers are whole numbers with a range of values, range of values are machine dependent. Generally an integer occupies 2 bytes memory space and its value range limited to -32768 to +32768 (that is, -2 to the power 15 to + 2 to the power 15 -1). A signed integer use one bit for  storing sign and rest 15 bits for number.

 To control the range of numbers and storage space, C has three classes of integer storage namely short int, and long in. All three data types have signed and unsigned forms. A short int requires half the amount of storage than normal integer. Unlike signed integer, unsigned integers are always positive and use all the bits for the magnitude of the number. Therefore  the range of an unsigned will be  form 0 to 65535. The long integers are used to declare a longer range of value and it occupies 4 bytes of storage space.

Syntax : int <variable name>;like
int num 1;
short int num 2;
long int num 3;
Example : 5,6,100,2500

Integer Data Type Memory Allocation



 Floating Point Types :
  The float data type is used to store fractional numbers (real number) with 6 digits of precision. Floating point numbers are denoted by the keyword float. When the accuracy of the floating point number is insufficient, we can use the double to define the number. The double is same as float but with longer precision and takes double space (8 bytes) than float. To extend the precision further we can use long double which occupies 10 bytes of memory space.
Syntax : float <variable name>; like
float num 1;
double num 2;
long double num 3;
Example : 9.125, 3.1254

Floating Point Data Type Memory Allocation


 Character Type :
  Character type variable can hold a single character. As there are singed and unsigned int (either short or long), in the same way there are signed unsigned chars; both occupy 1 bytes each, but having different ranges. Unsigned character have values between 0 and 255, signed characters have values from -128 to 127.

Syntax : char <variable name>; like

char ch = 'a';

Example : a,b,g,S,j.

Void Type :
  The void type has no values therefore we cannot declare it as variable as we did in case of integer and float.
   The void data type is usually used with function to specify its type.Like in our first C program we declared we declared "main( )" as void type because it does not return any value. The concept of returning values will be discussed in detail in the C function hub.


Secondary Data Types 

    Array in C programming
          An array in C language is a collection of similar data-type, means an array can hold value of a particular data type for which it has been declared. Arrays can be created from any of the C data-types int,............. .

   Pointers in C programming
         In this blog we are going to discuss what pointer is and how to use them our C program. Many C programming learner thinks that pointer is one of the difficult topic in C language but its not......... .

  Structure in C programming
         We used variable in our C program to store value but one variable can store only single piece information (an integer can hold only one integer value) and to store similar type of values we had to declare.....

User defined type declaration
       C language supports a feature where user can define an identifier that characterizes an existing data type. This user defined data type identifiers can later be used to declare variables. In short its purpose is to redefine the name of an existing data type.

Syntax : typedef <type> <identifier>; like

typedef int number;
  
Now we can use number in lieu of int to declare integer variable. For example : "int x1" or "number x1" both statement declaring an integer variable. We have just changed the default keyword "int" to declare integer variable to "number".


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