Sunday 28 April 2024

Understanding Python Namespaces: A Guide for Beginners


When delving into the world of Python programming, you'll inevitably come across the concept of namespaces. At first glance, it might seem like just another technical jargon, but understanding namespaces is crucial for writing clean, organized, and maintainable code in Python. In this blog post, we'll unravel the mystery behind namespaces, explore how they work, and discuss their significance in Python programming.

What are Namespaces?

In Python, a namespace is a mapping from names to objects. It serves as a mechanism to organize and manage names in a program. Think of it as a dictionary where the keys are the names of variables, functions, classes, and other objects, and the values are the corresponding objects themselves. Namespaces are used to avoid naming conflicts and to provide a context for the names used in a program.

Types of Namespaces

In Python, there are several types of namespaces:

  1. Built-in Namespace: This namespace contains built-in functions, exceptions, and other objects that are available by default in Python. Examples include print(), len(), and ValueError.

  2. Global Namespace: This namespace includes names defined at the top level of a module or script. These names are accessible throughout the module or script.

  3. Local Namespace: This namespace consists of names defined within a function or method. It is created when the function or method is called and is destroyed when the function or method exits.

  4. Enclosing Namespace: This namespace is relevant for nested functions. It includes names defined in the outer function's scope that are accessible to the inner function.

  5. Class Namespace: This namespace holds attributes and methods defined within a class. Each class has its own namespace.

How Namespaces Work

When you reference a name in Python, the interpreter looks for that name in a specific order across the available namespaces. This order is known as the "LEGB" rule:

  • Local: The interpreter first checks the local namespace, which contains names defined within the current function or method.

  • Enclosing: If the name is not found in the local namespace, the interpreter looks in the enclosing namespaces, starting from the innermost and moving outward.

  • Global: If the name is still not found, the interpreter searches the global namespace, which includes names defined at the top level of the module or script.

  • Built-in: Finally, if the name is not found in any of the above namespaces, the interpreter searches the built-in namespace, which contains Python's built-in functions and objects.

If the interpreter fails to find the name in any of the namespaces, it raises a NameError.

Significance of Namespaces

Namespaces play a crucial role in Python programming for the following reasons:

  • Preventing Name Collisions: Namespaces help avoid naming conflicts by providing a unique context for each name. This makes it easier to organize and manage code, especially in large projects with multiple modules and packages.

  • Encapsulation: Namespaces promote encapsulation by controlling the visibility and accessibility of names. For example, names defined within a function are not visible outside the function, which helps prevent unintended interactions between different parts of the code.

  • Modularity: Namespaces facilitate modularity by allowing developers to define and organize code into reusable modules and packages. Each module or package has its own namespace, which helps maintain separation of concerns and promotes code reuse.

In conclusion, understanding namespaces is essential for writing clean, organized, and maintainable code in Python. By leveraging namespaces effectively, developers can avoid naming conflicts, promote encapsulation, and enhance the modularity of their codebase. So, the next time you write Python code, remember the importance of namespaces and how they contribute to the structure and functionality of your programs. Happy coding!

Natural Language Processing Specialization


What you'll learn

Use logistic regression, naïve Bayes, and word vectors to implement sentiment analysis, complete analogies & translate words.

Use dynamic programming, hidden Markov models, and word embeddings to implement autocorrect, autocomplete & identify part-of-speech tags for words.

Use recurrent neural networks, LSTMs, GRUs & Siamese networks in Trax for sentiment analysis, text generation & named entity recognition.

Use encoder-decoder, causal, & self-attention to machine translate complete sentences, summarize text, build chatbots & question-answering.

Join Free: Natural Language Processing Specialization

Specialization - 4 course series

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a subfield of linguistics, computer science, and artificial intelligence that uses algorithms to interpret and manipulate human language. 

This technology is one of the most broadly applied areas of machine learning and is critical in effectively analyzing massive quantities of unstructured, text-heavy data. As AI continues to expand, so will the demand for professionals skilled at building models that analyze speech and language, uncover contextual patterns, and produce insights from text and audio.

By the end of this Specialization, you will be ready to design NLP applications that perform question-answering and sentiment analysis, create tools to translate languages and summarize text, and even build chatbots. These and other NLP applications are going to be at the forefront of the coming transformation to an 

AI-powered future

This Specialization is designed and taught by two experts in NLP, machine learning, and deep learning. 

Younes Bensouda Mourri

 is an Instructor of AI at Stanford University who also helped build the 

Deep Learning Specialization

Łukasz Kaiser

 is a Staff Research Scientist at Google Brain and the co-author of Tensorflow, the Tensor2Tensor and Trax libraries, and the Transformer paper. 

Applied Learning Project

This Specialization will equip you with machine learning basics and state-of-the-art deep learning techniques needed to build cutting-edge NLP systems:

• Use logistic regression, naïve Bayes, and word vectors to implement sentiment analysis, complete analogies, translate words, and use locality-sensitive hashing to approximate nearest neighbors.

• Use dynamic programming, hidden Markov models, and word embeddings to autocorrect misspelled words, autocomplete partial sentences, and identify part-of-speech tags for words.

• Use dense and recurrent neural networks, LSTMs, GRUs, and Siamese networks in TensorFlow and Trax to perform advanced sentiment analysis, text generation, named entity recognition, and to identify duplicate questions. 

• Use encoder-decoder, causal, and self-attention to perform advanced machine translation of complete sentences, text summarization, question-answering, and to build chatbots. Learn T5, BERT, transformer, reformer, and more with 🤗  Transformers!

Saturday 27 April 2024

Python Coding challenge - Day 187 | What is the output of the following Python Code?



def fred():


def jane():





Solution and Explanation:

let's go through it step by step:

Function Definitions:

def fred():

def jane():
Here, two functions are defined: fred() and jane().
fred() is a function that, when called, prints "Zap".
jane() is a function that, when called, prints "ABC".

Function Calls:

These lines are calls to the defined functions.
jane() is called first, so "ABC" is printed.
Then fred() is called, so "Zap" is printed.
Finally, jane() is called again, printing "ABC" once more.
So, when the code is executed:

This is because of the sequence of function calls: first "ABC", then "Zap", and lastly another "ABC".
Therefore, the output of this code will be:


Python Math Magic: 8 Easy Methods for Multiplication Tables!

num = int(input("Enter a number: "))

for i in range(1, 11):
    print(num, 'x', i, '=', num*i)
num = int(input("Enter a number: "))
i = 1

while i <= 10:
    print(num, 'x', i, '=', num*i)
    i += 1
# Prompt the user to enter a number
num = int(input("Enter a number: "))

# Use a list comprehension to print the multiplication table
_ = [print(num, 'x', i, '=', num*i) for i in range(1, 11)]
num = int(input("Enter a number: "))

table = list(map(lambda x: num * x, range(1, 11)))
for i in range(10):
    print(num, 'x', i+1, '=', table[i])
def print_table(num, times=1):
    if times > 10:
    print(num, 'x', times, '=', num * times)
    print_table(num, times + 1)

num = int(input("Enter a number: "))
import numpy as np

num = int(input("Enter a number: "))
multiplier = np.arange(1, 11)
result = np.outer([num], multiplier)

# Transpose the matrix before printing
result_transposed = result.T

# Format the output to remove square brackets
for row in result_transposed:
import pandas as pd

num = int(input("Enter a number: "))
multiplier = list(range(1, 11))

# Create DataFrame without specifying column labels
df = pd.DataFrame({num: [num * i for i in multiplier]})

# Print DataFrame without column labels
print(df.to_string(header=False, index=False))

# Prompt the user to enter a number

num = int(input("Enter a number: "))

# Create a string representation of the multiplication table

table = '\n'.join([f"{num} x {i} = {num * i}" for i in range(1, 11)])

# Print the multiplication table


Python Classes with Examples

Introduction to Python Classes:

Classes are the building blocks of object-oriented programming (OOP) in Python. They encapsulate data and functionality into objects, promoting code reusability and modularity. At its core, a class is a blueprint for creating objects, defining their attributes (variables) and methods (functions).

Syntax of a Python Class:

class ClassName:

    # Class variables

    class_variable = value


    # Constructor

    def __init__(self, parameters):

        self.instance_variable = parameters


    # Instance method

    def method_name(self, parameters):

        # method body

Class Variables: Variables shared by all instances of a class. Constructor (init): Initializes instance variables when an object is created. Instance Variables: Variables unique to each instance. Instance Methods: Functions that operate on instance variables.

Creating a Simple Class in Python

Selection deleted

class Car:

    # Class variable

    wheels = 4


    # Constructor

    def __init__(self, brand, model):

        # Instance variables

        self.brand = brand

        self.model = model


    # Instance method

    def display_info(self):

        print(f"{self.brand} {self.model} has {self.wheels} wheels.")

# Creating objects of Car class

car1 = Car("Toyota", "Camry")

car2 = Car("Honda", "Accord")

# Accessing instance variables and calling methods



Toyota Camry has 4 wheels.

Honda Accord has 4 wheels.

Why Should You Learn Python Programming?


Python programming language has been gaining immense popularity in recent years, and for good reason. Whether you're a beginner looking to dive into the world of coding or an experienced developer seeking to expand your skill set, learning Python offers a myriad of benefits and opportunities. In this blog post, we'll explore some compelling reasons why you should consider learning Python.

Simplicity and Readability:

One of Python's most appealing features is its simplicity and readability. With its clean and concise syntax, Python code resembles plain English, making it easy to understand and write. This simplicity not only reduces the time spent on coding but also makes Python an excellent choice for beginners who are just starting their programming journey.

Versatility: Python's versatility is unmatched. It is a general-purpose programming language that can be used for a wide range of applications, including web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence, machine learning, automation, and more. Whether you're building a website, analyzing large datasets, or developing complex algorithms, Python has the tools and libraries to support your endeavors.

Rich Ecosystem of Libraries and Frameworks:

Python boasts a vast ecosystem of libraries and frameworks that streamline development and empower developers to achieve their goals more efficiently. From web frameworks like Django and Flask to data science libraries such as pandas and NumPy, Python offers robust solutions for virtually any task or project. These libraries and frameworks not only accelerate development but also ensure code reliability and maintainability.

High Demand in the Job Market: In today's technology-driven world, Python skills are in high demand across industries. Companies ranging from startups to tech giants rely on Python for a myriad of purposes, including software development, data analysis, and machine learning. By learning Python, you enhance your employability and open doors to exciting career opportunities in fields such as software engineering, data science, artificial intelligence, and more.

Thriving Community and Resources: Python has a vibrant and supportive community of developers, enthusiasts, and experts who are eager to share knowledge, collaborate on projects, and provide assistance. Whether you're seeking guidance on a coding challenge, looking for tutorials and documentation, or simply connecting with like-minded individuals, the Python community offers a wealth of resources and support networks to help you succeed.

Cross-Platform Compatibility: Python is a cross-platform language, meaning that code written in Python can run seamlessly on various operating systems, including Windows, macOS, and Linux. This cross-platform compatibility ensures that your Python applications can reach a broader audience and be deployed across different environments without major modifications.

In conclusion, learning Python programming offers a multitude of benefits and opportunities for both beginners and experienced developers alike. Its simplicity, versatility, rich ecosystem, high demand in the job market, thriving community, and cross-platform compatibility make it a valuable skill worth acquiring. Whether you're interested in building web applications, analyzing data, or delving into the realms of artificial intelligence and machine learning, Python provides the tools and resources to turn your ideas into reality. So why wait? Start your Python journey today and unlock a world of endless possibilities.

Free Course: Programming for Everybody (Getting Started with Python)

Friday 26 April 2024

Python Coding challenge - Day 186 | What is the output of the following Python Code?



def test(a, b = 5):

    print(a, b)


Solution and Explanation:

 Let's delve into the details of the Python function test:

def test(a, b=5):
    print(a, b)
This is a function definition in Python. Here's what each part means:

def: This keyword is used to define a function in Python.
test: This is the name of the function. You can call this function later in your code by using this name.
(a, b=5): These are the parameters of the function. a is a required parameter, while b is an optional parameter with a default value of 5.
print(a, b): This line inside the function is responsible for printing the values of a and b.
Now, let's see how the function behaves when it's called with different arguments:

If you call the function with two arguments, like test(2, 8), it will print 2 8, because a is assigned the value 2 and b is assigned the value 8.
If you call the function with only one argument, like test(-3), Python will assign -3 to the parameter a, and since no value is provided for b, it will take its default value, which is 5. So, it will print -3 5.
If you call the function with two arguments again, like test(10, 20), it will print 10 20, with a being 10 and b being 20.
This flexibility with default parameter values allows you to define functions that can be called with different numbers of arguments, providing sensible defaults when certain arguments are not provided.

Top 4 free Mathematics course for Data Science !

In the age of big data, understanding statistics and data science concepts is becoming increasingly crucial across various industries. From finance to healthcare, businesses are leveraging data-driven insights to make informed decisions and gain a competitive edge. In this blog post, we'll embark on a journey through fundamental statistical concepts, explore the powerful technique of K-Means Clustering in Python, delve into the realm of probability, and demystify practical time series analysis.

In our tutorial, we'll walk through the implementation of K-Means clustering using Python, focusing on the following steps:

Understanding the intuition behind K-Means clustering.
Preprocessing the data and feature scaling.
Choosing the optimal number of clusters using techniques like the Elbow Method or Silhouette Score.
Implementing K-Means clustering using scikit-learn.
Visualizing the clustering results to gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

Probability theory is the mathematical framework for analyzing random phenomena and quantifying uncertainty. Whether you're predicting the outcome of a coin toss or estimating the likelihood of a stock market event, probability theory provides the tools to make informed decisions in the face of uncertainty.

In this section, we'll provide an intuitive introduction to probability, covering essential concepts such as:

Basic probability terminology: events, sample space, and outcomes.
Probability axioms and rules: addition rule, multiplication rule, and conditional probability.
Probability distributions: discrete and continuous distributions.
Common probability distributions: Bernoulli, binomial, normal, and Poisson distributions.
Applications of probability theory in real-world scenarios.

Time series analysis is a crucial technique for analyzing data points collected over time and extracting meaningful insights to make forecasts and predictions. From stock prices to weather patterns, time series data is ubiquitous in various domains.

In our practical guide to time series analysis, we'll cover the following topics:

Introduction to time series data: components, trends, seasonality, and noise.
Preprocessing time series data: handling missing values, detrending, and deseasonalizing.
Exploratory data analysis (EDA) techniques for time series data visualization.
Time series forecasting methods: moving averages, exponential smoothing, and ARIMA models.
Implementing time series analysis in Python using libraries like pandas, statsmodels, and matplotlib.

Practical Time Series Analysis


There are 6 modules in this course

Welcome to Practical Time Series Analysis!

Many of us are "accidental" data analysts. We trained in the sciences, business, or engineering and then found ourselves confronted with data for which we have no formal analytic training.  This course is designed for people with some technical competencies who would like more than a "cookbook" approach, but who still need to concentrate on the routine sorts of presentation and analysis that deepen the understanding of our professional topics. 

In practical Time Series Analysis we look at data sets that represent sequential information, such as stock prices, annual rainfall, sunspot activity, the price of agricultural products, and more.  We look at several mathematical models that might be used to describe the processes which generate these types of data. We also look at graphical representations that provide insights into our data. Finally, we also learn how to make forecasts that say intelligent things about what we might expect in the future.

Please take a few minutes to explore the course site. You will find video lectures with supporting written materials as well as quizzes to help emphasize important points. The language for the course is R, a free implementation of the S language. It is a professional environment and fairly easy to learn.

You can discuss material from the course with your fellow learners. Please take a moment to introduce yourself!

Join Free: Practical Time Series Analysis

Time Series Analysis can take effort to learn- we have tried to present those ideas that are "mission critical" in a way where you understand enough of the math to fell satisfied while also being immediately productive. We hope you enjoy the class!

An Intuitive Introduction to Probability


There are 5 modules in this course

This course will provide you with a basic, intuitive and practical introduction into Probability Theory. You will be able to learn how to apply Probability Theory in different scenarios and you will earn a "toolbox" of methods to deal with uncertainty in your daily life. 

The course is split in 5 modules. In each module you will first have an easy introduction into the topic, which will serve as a basis to further develop your knowledge about the topic and acquire the "tools" to deal with uncertainty. Additionally, you will have the opportunity to complete 5 exercise sessions to reflect about the content learned in each module and start applying your earned knowledge right away. 

The topics covered are: "Probability", "Conditional Probability", "Applications", "Random Variables", and "Normal Distribution".

Join Free : An Intuitive Introduction to Probability

You will see how the modules are taught in a lively way, focusing on having an entertaining and useful learning experience! We are looking forward to see you online!

10 tricky python quiz with answers

  • What will be the output of the following code snippet?


Answer: False

Explanation: An empty string is considered to be False in a boolean context.

  • What will be the output of the following code snippet?

print(1 + "2")

Answer: TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'int' and 'str'

Explanation: You cannot add an integer and a string in Python.

  • What will be the output of the following code snippet?

print(2 * "2")

Answer: '22'

Explanation: In Python, you can multiply a string by an integer, which will result in the string being repeated that many times.

  • What will be the output of the following code snippet?

print(0 == False)

Answer: True

Explanation: In Python, both 0 and False are considered to be False in a boolean context.

  • What will be the output of the following code snippet?

print(len("Hello, World!"))

Answer: 13

Explanation: The len() function returns the length of a string, which is the number of characters it contains.

  • What will be the output of the following code snippet?

print(1 in [1, 2, 3])

Answer: True

Explanation: The in keyword can be used to check if a value is present in a list.

  • What will be the output of the following code snippet?

print({1, 2, 3} & {2, 3, 4})

Answer: {2, 3}

Explanation: The & operator can be used to find the intersection of two sets.

  • What will be the output of the following code snippet?

print(1 > 2 > 3)

Answer: False

Explanation: In Python, the > operator has a higher precedence than the and operator, so the expression is evaluated as (1 > 2) and (2 > 3), which is False.

  • What will be the output of the following code snippet?

print(1 is 1.0)

Answer: False

Explanation: In Python, the is keyword checks if two variables refer to the same object, not if they have the same value.

  • What will be the output of the following code snippet?

print(1 is not 1.0)

Answer: True

Explanation: The is not keyword checks if two variables do not refer to the same object.

Book Giveaway ! One Book one Person


  1. Software Architecture Patterns for Serverless Systems - Second Edition: Architecting for innovation with event-driven microservices and micro frontends
  2. Modern C++ Programming Cookbook - Third Edition: Master modern C++ including the latest features of C++23 with 140+ practical recipes
  3. Build your own Programming Language - Second Edition: A developer's comprehensive guide to crafting, compiling, and implementing programming languages
  4. Unity Cookbook - Fifth Edition: Over 160 recipes to craft your own masterpiece in Unity 2023
  5. Deep Learning Illustrated: A Visual, Interactive Guide to Artificial Intelligence (Addison-Wesley Data & Analytics Series)
  6. Terraform Cookbook - Second Edition: Provision, run, and scale cloud architecture with real-world examples using Terraform
  7. Dancing with Qubits - Second Edition: From qubits to algorithms, embark on the quantum computing journey shaping our future
  8. Interpretable Machine Learning with Python - Second Edition: Build explainable, fair, and robust high-performance models with hands-on, real-world examples
  9. Generative AI with LangChain: Build large language model (LLM) apps with Python, ChatGPT and other LLMs
  10. Transformers for Natural Language Processing and Computer Vision - Third Edition: Explore Generative AI and Large Language Models with Hugging Face, ChatGPT, GPT-4V, and DALL-E 3
  11. Java Coding Problems - Second Edition: Become an expert Java programmer by solving over 250 brand-new, modern, real-world problems
  12. Azure Data Factory Cookbook - Second Edition: A data engineer's guide to building and managing ETL and ELT pipelines with data integration
  13. Systems Engineering Demystified - Second Edition: Apply modern, model-based systems engineering techniques to build complex systems
  14. Extending Power BI with Python and R - Second Edition: Perform advanced analysis using the power of analytical languages
  15. 50 Algorithms Every Programmer Should Know - Second Edition: An unbeatable arsenal of algorithmic solutions for real-world problems
  16. Python for Security and Networking - Third Edition: Leverage Python modules and tools in securing your network and applications
  17. Developing Kaggle Notebooks: Pave your way to becoming a Kaggle Notebooks Grandmaster
  18. Machine Learning Engineering with Python - Second Edition: Manage the lifecycle of machine learning models using MLOps with practical examples
  19. Generative AI with Python and TensorFlow 2: Create images, text, and music with VAEs, GANs, LSTMs, Transformer models
  20. Functional Python Programming - Third Edition: Use a functional approach to write succinct, expressive, and efficient Python code
  21. Mastering Go - Fourth Edition: Leverage Go's expertise for advanced utilities, empowering you to develop professional software

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